keeping research clear and connected
Referencing is an important part of research in essays and reports. Leading-in to quotes or paraphrasing is essential for clarity and is a skill that can be learned.
Ensure Flow and Continuity
When including researched information in your writing, it is important that flow and reasoning of the sentence be maintained. Students often find this part of the essay writing process difficult but with a little attention, flow can easily be maintained.
When referencing, it is important to lead in to quotes or paraphrasing. The lead-in allows the reader to follow the reasoning of the up• coming information. For exampie:
- Jones (2004, p.4) argues that “company managers must regulate office procedures”.
- Jones and Watson (2003) believe teamwork issues must be carefully considered and monitored. On the other hand, Smith (2003) recognises the impact that cultural differences will have on teamwork.
- However, the explanation offered by Smith (2003) fails to assess all areas of behaviour.
Avoid awkward sentence structure such as
- Jones (2003, p.325) says” ….. ” and Williams (1992, p.2) says that” …. “
- Martin (2004) disagrees with Richards’ (1996) article which says that the markets will not survive.
A better way
- While Jones (2003, p.325) states that ” ……. ,”Williams (1992, P.16) disagrees, arguing that” …. “
- Martin (2004) disagrees with the claim by Richards (1994) that the market structure will not survive.
More options for ieading in to quotes or paraphrases
- Sanderson’s claim that “stakeholders will find it almost impossible to recover” (1998, p.10) is disputed by Watson et al. (2000) who suggest that the situation is controllable.
This is preferable to: Sanderson’s (1998, p.10) claim that.. ..
- The view expressed by Johnson (2005) is that cross-cultural interactions are necessary for business success.
Introducing quotations and paraphrasing smoothly and efficiently
Weston and Roberts (2005) state that.. …
Weston and Roberts (2005) argue that… ..
Weston and Roberts (2005 conclude that.. ..
Weston and Roberts (2005) believe that.. ..
Weston and Roberts (2005) support the idea that…
Weston and Roberts (2005) claim that ….
Weston and Roberts (2005) disagree with the claim by Smith (2004) that …
According to Weston and Roberts (2005).
Keep your own list of good lead-ins to quotes and paraphrasing and add to it from lead-in phrases you find when reading researched journal papers.
Paraphrasing (Your own wording of others’ information and ideas)
You may paraphrase a section of text read, i.e.
one or two pages, with the principle result of those pages stated in one sentence. You may also summarise the findings of several authors who agree on certain points.
• All students learn better if they are well prepared (Weston & Richards,
• Current research represents only a small portion of the study (Smith,
• Limited research illustrates the need to further address leadership traits (Lawson, 2004).
• According to Lawson (2004) leadership issues must be addressed.
• Many researchers agree that tourism markets in Asia are likely to improve in the next five year period (Lai & Jones, 2000; Maine & Tao, 2003; Richards, 2004)
Other points to remember
When referring to a magazine or newspaper in your text, always use italics. For example:
(Note: personal communications appear in• text only. They do not appear in your Reference List because they cannot be confirmed).
- The West Australian ran the story last week (18 June 2004, p.16).
- The Economist suggests that BHP cannot expand further (2 February 2005, p.16).
- An email from David Watkins (21 March 2005) highlights his company’s commitment to customer service.
- When interviewed, David Watkins confirmed the organisation’s commitment (21 Oct 2003).
If the information comes from a second author, that is, the author you are reading (Smith) and he/she has quoted or paraphrased another author, then use:
• Watson (cited in Smith, 2004) believes companies do not recognise the limitations of the project.
These have their own particular reference structure so check these with your lecturer.