Referencing techniques: keeping research clear and connected

Ngày đăng: 08/05/2015

Referencing  techniques:

keeping research clear  and connected

Referencing    is an important   part  of research   in  essays  and  reports.    Leading-in   to quotes  or paraphrasing    is essential  for clarity   and  is  a  skill  that  can   be  learned.

Ensure Flow  and  Continuity

When  including   researched information  in your writing,   it is important that  flow  and  reasoning of the  sentence  be maintained.   Students often find  this  part  of the  essay writing   process difficult   but  with  a little  attention,  flow  can easily  be maintained.

Leading in

When  referencing, it is important to  lead  in to quotes  or paraphrasing. The lead-in  allows  the reader  to follow  the  reasoning of the  up• coming  information.   For exampie:

  • Jones  (2004,   p.4)  argues  that  “company managers must  regulate  office procedures”.
  • Jones and Watson  (2003)   believe teamwork  issues must  be carefully considered and  monitored.   On the  other hand,  Smith  (2003)  recognises the  impact that  cultural   differences will  have on teamwork.

Leading out

  • However, the  explanation offered  by Smith (2003)   fails  to assess all areas of behaviour.

Avoid  awkward  sentence structure  such as

  • Jones (2003,  p.325)   says”  …..  ” and Williams  (1992,  p.2)  says that”  …. “
  • Martin  (2004)   disagrees with  Richards’ (1996)  article  which  says that  the markets will  not survive.

A better   way

  • While  Jones (2003,   p.325)    states  that ” …….   ,”Williams   (1992,   P.16)  disagrees, arguing   that”  …. “
  • Martin  (2004)   disagrees with  the  claim by Richards  (1994)  that  the  market structure will  not survive.

More  options for  ieading in to  quotes  or paraphrases

  • Sanderson’s  claim  that  “stakeholders will  find  it almost   impossible to recover” (1998,  p.10)  is disputed  by Watson  et al. (2000)   who suggest  that the  situation   is controllable.

This  is preferable to: Sanderson’s (1998,   p.10)  claim  that.. ..

  • The view  expressed by Johnson   (2005) is  that  cross-cultural  interactions  are necessary  for  business  success.

Introducing  quotations  and  paraphrasing smoothly and  efficiently

Weston  and Roberts  (2005)   state  that.. …

Weston  and Roberts  (2005)   argue  that… ..

Weston  and  Roberts  (2005  conclude  that.. ..

Weston  and  Roberts  (2005)   believe  that.. ..

Weston    and   Roberts    (2005)    support   the   idea that…

Weston    and   Roberts    (2005)    claim   that  ….

Weston    and   Roberts    (2005)    disagree  with    the  claim   by  Smith    (2004)    that  …

According   to  Weston    and   Roberts    (2005).

 Keep your own list of good lead-ins to quotes and paraphrasing and  add  to  it  from   lead-in phrases    you   find   when   reading   researched journal papers.

Paraphrasing   (Your   own  wording  of others’   information   and  ideas)

You may  paraphrase a section  of text  read,  i.e.

one or two  pages,   with  the  principle result  of those  pages  stated   in one sentence.  You may also summarise the  findings of several  authors who  agree  on certain   points.

For example:

•      All  students learn  better   if they  are well  prepared (Weston & Richards,


•      Current  research  represents only  a small  portion  of the  study  (Smith,


•      Limited   research  illustrates the  need  to further   address  leadership traits (Lawson, 2004).

•      According to  Lawson  (2004)   leadership issues  must  be addressed.

•       Many  researchers agree  that  tourism markets  in Asia are  likely  to improve  in the  next  five  year  period  (Lai  & Jones, 2000;   Maine & Tao,  2003;   Richards, 2004)

Other   points   to  remember

When  referring  to a magazine or newspaper in your  text,   always  use italics.  For example:

(Note:   personal  communications appear  in• text  only.   They  do not  appear  in your Reference List because  they  cannot  be confirmed).

  • The West Australian   ran the  story  last week  (18 June  2004,  p.16).
  • The Economist  suggests that  BHP cannot  expand  further   (2 February 2005,  p.16).
  • An email  from  David  Watkins (21 March 2005)  highlights his company’s commitment  to customer service.
  • When  interviewed, David  Watkins confirmed the  organisation’s commitment  (21  Oct 2003).

Secondary Citings

If the  information  comes  from  a second author,  that  is, the  author  you  are  reading (Smith)   and  he/she  has quoted  or paraphrased another author,   then  use:

•               Watson  (cited  in  Smith,   2004)  believes companies do not  recognise the limitations  of the  project.

Legal  references

These  have their  own  particular  reference structure so check  these  with  your  lecturer.

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